Transcript of the talk at Rotaract Club


I gave this talk on Saturday (May 19, 2012). This is the approximate transcript.  (Please ignore grammatical mistakes – as it was written to be spoken 🙂 )

Good evening everyone,

First of all I would like to thank Jitendra and his team for giving me the opportunity to be here today. It is a sheer pleasure to address and interact with young members of Rotaract Club.

Now, I stand here as an entrepreneur and hence the topic I am going to speak on should be no surprise. It is about “Entrepreneurship in India”. Being in a city like Bangalore, it is almost impossible that most of you have not been exposed to the buzz surrounding Entrepreneurship in last decade or two. There are entrepreneurs, and funders and events and organizations… Some are doing entrepreneurship, some are promoting it, some are helping entrepreneurs, yet others are building entrepreneurial ventures to address the needs of entrepreneurs and so on.

So, what is Entrepreneurship? The reason I ask this question is not because we need a very crisp, accurate definition of the term. I ask this just to make myself aware of anything entrepreneurial going on around us and not become too narrow-sighted about things.

In the broadest sense, entrepreneurship can be thought of as any form of self-employment. It can include a farm-labour, a shopkeeper, your milkman, newspaper dealer, and the owners of bigger enterprises as well.

Or in someone else’s eyes, all forms of self-employment is not entrepreneurship. They would restrict the definition of entrepreneurship to more formal, organized businesses. Apart from new people jumping into create their own enterprises, traditional traders and manufacturers will count as entrepreneurs here.

Then there can be an even more restricted definition of Entrepreneurship. Here you count only those people as entrepreneurs, who have ventured into new, innovative businesses. I will come back to what I mean by innovative businesses, in a bit.

But before that let me look at some other aspects too. And one of those is the motivation behind Entrepreneurship. Why do people become Entrepreneurs? And while talking of the motivation, I am talking of entrepreneurship of all kinds.

So, people can become entrepreneurs because of necessity. First kind is economic necessity, necessities of livelihood. When you can’t get a job, you start a business. If you are a farmer, either you work on your own land or work on other people’s land. That is pretty much the only option you have.

The second kind of necessity is personal or social. The most common example I can think of are women with young kids, who can’t go to a regular job because they want to take care of their kids. So, they often engage in home-based businesses. It can be of all kinds. Being in publishing, we work with women who are self-employed as editors, graphic designers etc. Typically they will involve in some business that can use their skill.

Apart from necessity, people also become entrepreneurs by tradition. Think of the people in trader communities. Sindhis, Marwaris and others have it “in their blood” so to say. Then there are also these big industrialists, whose kids would follow them in business, grow the existing business, start new ones and so on.

The final one in the list of motivation behind entrepreneurship is passion. This is the motivation that is likely to be most important for the people sitting in the audience here. These are the people who become entrepreneurs because they are passionate about an idea, or about their independence which they find getting stifled in corporate environments, or about using their skill in a way they want to, or even simply about making more money than what a job can give them. They are not entrepreneurs because they are not able to earn a livelihood or because there is family pressure to get into the business. In fact, it is highly likely that they are well-educated, are in very good jobs and they family scoffs at their decision of giving all of that up for this little fancy of theirs. If they are drop-outs from college, it is not because they could not pay the fees, but because they did not fit in the system and wanted to do something on their own.

And with that I come to the question of why this buzz about Entrepreneurship in last decade or two. If we look at the employment situation in India, a large number of people have always been self-employed. Currently also more than half of India is self-employed. Even when a lot of other businesses were controlled by what we now call “license Raj“, India had one of the highest number of retail outlets in the world, most run by independent, even if small scale, entrepreneurs. So, entrepreneurship is not really new to India. What is new then? Why the buzz? The buzz is there because of the rise of Entrepreneurship, which is 1) motivated by the passion in the capable individuals and 2) where they are engaging in creating innovative businesses.

This is the time to elaborate on the idea of innovative businesses. The word “innovation” is like “God”. Everyone has his or her own definition of this word, their own beliefs about what is Innovation and what is not. Much like God – you see. So, I use the word with my own definition and understanding. When I talk of innovative business, it doesn’t mean there some magic happening with the business. It does not even mean that the idea is completely new. What it means is that one or more aspects of the business are unproven.

So, it can be a completely new idea or product and everything about it might need to be proven.

Or it can be an idea whose operations are figured out, but you do not know whether or how it will make enough money.

Or you know that there is demand, but you are not sure if the technology or operational skills are available to implement it.

It can be a business that is in existence elsewhere, but you do not know whether it will work in this particular geography.

So, overall, there is a risk in such businesses and if it works out, there are significant rewards.

Let me explain by example.

If you open a new Saree shop in Chikpet, the basics of business are all figured out. There are so many people already in the business, and the terms of trade are standard. The rent, the margins, the sale price etc. are more or less given. If you don’t royally screw something up, you will get on fine like the rest of the shopkeepers.

But consider Flipkart. Well – the idea of e-commerce was not new when they started. Amazon was already successful in the US. Even in India, they weren’t the first one. Indiaplaza and some other players had been there for several years. But there were too many aspects of the business that were unproven.

With the lack of credit card penetration, will e-commerce really take off in India?

Will the infrastructure support it?

Will customers in India ever put trust in a faceless company?

Will the Indian consumer, addicted to bargaining, ever accept organized retail at all?

Flipkart plunged into these unknowns, managed to answer some of these questions positively and is reaping the reward in terms of revenue growth.

Logistics was a problem, Flipkart started building its own logistics.

Customer trust was a problem, they provided excellent customer support to earn that trust.

Indian e-commerce websites were so badly designed, nobody ever felt like ordering something, they built a great website.

Credit card penetration was a problem, they started accepting demand drafts and offered COD.

Some arm-chair purists would be happy to dismiss Flipkart as a copy of amazon. But do you see how many unknowns they have answered? Amazon will never think of building its own logistics in US or Europe. They are not into COD and are unlikely to get into it.

And many questions still remain unanswered. The most important one being – will e-commerce ever make money in India? Flipkart has gone to great lengths to gain customers, their trust and confidence. But all this has been at the cost of burning investor’s money. The hope is, that like Amazon, after several years of sustaining losses, they will eventually make money. They and their investors are taking a risk. If it pays off the rewards will be great.

Similarly think Future Group that started with Pantaloon Retails. Some things were known. Of course, people buy stuff and pay for it. There is a market for retail. And the equivalents of Pantaloon, Central Malls, Big Bazaars existed and worked in US and Europe.

But will it work in India?

Will Indian consumers accept this format?

Will the prices of goods in Indian market and cost of running air conditioned store with the computerized inventory system and trained staff work out?

Those were the unknowns around which Kishore Biyani had taken the risks and reaped the rewards.

In my personal experience with also, we have worked with similar unknowns, we are still working with them and when we are able to answer the questions positively, we reap the rewards!

Now, you can’t talk of Entrepreneurship in India and not talk of the challenges before the entrepreneurs. There are challenges and obstacles. Despite the fact that we have left the license raj behind us, the laws, regulations, compliance requirements etc. are overwhelming. The processes in government offices are what we expect them to be. If you are getting into organized sector, want to incorporate a company, you have to keep aside a significant amount of money, and time for just incorporating the company and then meeting with compliance requirements every year after that.

The infrastructure problem need not be explained too much. We are aware of electricity, roads and what not. And it affects us on a day to day basis. Let me give you an example. To save cost, we operate out of an area where the rents are lower. But when it comes to hiring, we would like to be able to draw from the pool available throughout the city, right? But with the roads overcrowded and crumbling public transport infrastructure, anyone coming from too far will spend so much time in traveling that productivity will be sapped out of him or her. So, despite being in a city, where a good talent pool is available, hiring opportunities are severely restricted by the locality.

While talking of hiring, quality of people capital is another problem entrepreneurs face in India. We graduate a large number of people, but their employability is highly questionable. I can talk specifically of Computer Science. Software companies like Infosys and TCS hire in such large numbers. They have built their entire business by making use of fresh graduates whose skills are not very polished. Even they say that 80% of the pool of graduates in not employable. Most tech start-ups need much better skilled people and they are just not available anywhere.

Supplementary services are also a problem. From e-commerce perspective, I can tell you that logistics is in bad shape. Even the most expensive and premium courier services provide pathetic service.

So, all of that is there, but thinking entrepreneurially, every obstacle is also an opportunity. If people are unemployable, there is an opportunity for entrepreneurs in the training business. If the current logistics companies are pathetic, there is an opportunity to rethink the logistics business, focussing especially on e-commerce, let’s say. If legal and compliance issues are overwhelming for entrepreneurs, specialists can help them. Novojuris, a company we work with for all our accounting, compliance and legal requirement is such an entrepreneurial venture.

So, overall, there are opportunities. Even if there are challenges and obstacles, things are getting better and future of entrepreneurship in India is bright. If you want to take the plunge, you are born at the right time!

That’s all I had today. If there are any questions, I will be happy to take them.

Thank you.


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About Jaya

Jaya Jha is an entrepreneur, a techie, a writer and a poet. She was born and brought up in various towns of Bihar and Jharkhand. A graduate of IIT Kanpur and IIM Lucknow, she realized early on that the corporate world was not her cup of tea. In 2008, she started, one of the first print-on-demand publishing platform in India. She currently lives in Bangalore and divides her time between writing and working on her company's latest product InstaScribe ( with a vision to make it the best e-book creation tool. Blog: Twitter: @jayajha Facebook:

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